Sample of MLA Annotated Bibliography: Racism in the twenty-first Century
Bailey, Kerry A. “Racism within the Canadian University: Indigenous Students’ Experiences.” Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 39, no. 7, May 2016, pp. 1261–79. DOI.org (Crossref).
The researcher investigates the subtler racism whereby the aggressor uses microaggression, in the context Indigenous students based in Canada, and the impact that this racism has to on the victim. The researcher interviewed seventeen students on their experiences of this kind of racism, and their perception of the situation. Here the researcher was concerned whether the participant of the study had developed coping mechanisms for dealing with this experience.
The researcher was also concerned with whether racism had affected indigenous people’s access to education and equality. The study found that the indigenous people were frequently facing some racially based microaggressions., something that made them develop coping mechanisms, for example, having strong support systems and increase the number of people who complete higher education. The study is, therefore, a substantive resource as it focusses on subtle racism, something that is quite common in the 21st Century and the impact it has on the victims’ lives.
Carol, Agocs, and Jain Harish. “Systemic Racism in Employment in Canada: Diagnosing Systemic Racism in Organizational Culture.” ResearchGate, 2001.
This paper looked into a different kind of racism that is common in the 21st Century, which is systemic racism, that affects the Canadian labour market between 1980 and 200. The researchers used data from obtained from 119 cases of systemic racism adjudicated by the human rights organisms to the Canadian judicial system. This study is based on quantitative data of the issues and the census reports and uses regression analysis to analyses this data.
The study concluded that there was racism discrimination in employment, something that was affecting the efficiency of the labour market. The study also concluded that racism was a multifaceted phenomenon that has a significant impact on the general economic system. This research study provides valuable information on one of the most impactful versions of racism, that has taken roots even before the 21st Century, denying people equal opportunities in the economic system.
Grosfoguel, Ramon. “What Is Racism?” Journal of World-Systems Research, vol. 22, no. 1, Mar. 2016, pp. 9–15. DOI.org (Crossref).
Grosfoguel attempts to find out what racism is by looking into why postcolonial studies considering the current refugee crises that reflect the state of the world, which is violent and uneven. This study looks into postcolonial legal, geographical and political philosophy studies that have looked into the issue of racism. The researchers found out that the postcolonial theory is a link between humanities and social sciences.
The researcher also argued that this link provides the scholars in the host countries to expose themselves to and understand the arts and literature of refugee communities as carried from their country of origin. It was also argued that politics and national affects the way the literary history of communities is experienced and studied. This study the unfortunate predicaments that refugee finds themselves in as an opportunity to understand how limiting national borders can be on how the art and literature of a community as experienced, providing an avenue of examining the impact of politics on racism.
Olivier, Jasmine, et al. “Racism.” The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, edited by George Ritzer, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2019, pp. 1–10. DOI.org (Crossref).
Olivier, Jasmine, et al. looks into the reemergence of overt racism in the first world countries, something that can be seen with an increase of white supremacist movements. The authors, therefore, focus on the concept of race, terming it as a social contract that has no biological basis. This, however, does not limit its social impact. Racial discrimination denies people equal treatment in the social, economic and political spheres.
This pare looked into the matter in three phases with the first one focusing on Jim Crow, Imperialism and slavery. The second phase looks into the civil rights movement, and the post-racism era and the third one is the reemergence of overt racism in the second decade of the 21st Century. There is, therefore, need for more scholars to look into the issue of the racism in the 21st Century. This study presents the urgency of critically looking into the issue of racism in the 21st Century and the various approached that can be used.
Salter, Phia S., et al. “Racism in the Structure of Everyday Worlds: A Cultural-Psychological Perspective.” Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 27, no. 3, June 2018, pp. 150–55. DOI.org (Crossref).
This study looks into the nature of the existence of racism in society and points out that it not only exists in people’s mind but the world at large. This present the two aspects of racism with is individual prejudice and systemic racism. The study reviews the cultural and historical pattern that has led to the systemic racism in the 21st Century.
The study, therefore, investigated the existence of racism in the everyday-world, then the various choices that people make thus becoming racialized, and the existence of discrimination culturally. It suggests that people deal with the issue of racism in individuals rather than the society at large. The study, therefore, attributes the existence of structural racism to its existence in people’s minds, thus providing a unique perspective into the matter.
Sellers, Robert M., et al. “Racial Identity Matters: The Relationship between Racial Discrimination and Psychological Functioning in African American Adolescents.” Journal of Research on Adolescence, vol. 16, no. 2, June 2006, pp. 187–216. DOI.org (Crossref).
This study examines African American adolescents as a population that is helpful in low regard by the general public. This has an impact on their relationship with their racial identity, something that leads to low psychological functioning, which was measured by their psychological wellbeing, depressive symptomatology, and perceived stress due to racial discrimination.
The researchers, therefore, recommend that having a positive attitude can help improve their psychological wellbeing. With many researchers looking into the issue of racism, its causes, impacts and how it can be eradicated, this study addresses the victims of racism on the various coping mechanisms to avoid the negative effects of racism on this psychological wellbeing, a unique perspective.