Police-Community Trust Building Annotated Bibliography

Police-Community Trust Building Annotated Bibliography

Police-Community Trust Building for Law Order and Justice

  • Student Name: [Insert your name here.]
  • Student ID#: [Insert your student ID# here.]
  • Professor: Dilvur Dub
  • CRIM 251: Law Enforcement in Canada
  • School of Criminology and Criminal Justice
  • University of the Fraser Valley
  • November 23, 2020

Besides being the height of the COVID-19 Pandemic, the year 2020 will be remembered for the worldwide Black Lives Matter protests after the murder of George Floyd. In the United States, the police-community conflict escalated from affecting the minority communities in poor neighborhoods to a nationwide campaign, Defund the Police.

The current predicament presents an opportunity to ensure that trust is restored between the two parties and that law, order, and justice are not mutually exclusive. Therefore, researchers must look into past studies by researchers on the factors that lead to the police community conflict in the United States, from both parties’ perspectives and how trust can be restored.

Police-Community Trust Building Annotated Bibliography

McManus, H. D., Cullen, F. T., Jonson, C. L., Burton, A. L., & Burton Jr, V. S. (2019). Will black lives matter to the police? African Americans’ concerns about Trump’s presidency. Victims & Offenders14(8), 1040-1062.

McManus et al. (2019) sought to study the political implication of the Black Lives Matter protests and whether the political consequences would force them president Donald Trump, in addition to his contribution. This was justified by the Donald Trump Administration’s personalized nature, the former president’s polarizing personality, and often antiminority rhetoric, which gets comprehensive media coverage. The researcher conducted a study with a sample of 1000 African Americans to gain their perspective on whether the election of former United States President accelerated the police minority conflicts and even racial conflict.

The data was collected via online surveys conducted on YouGov, an online survey company, after constructing a pseudo sampling frame. The researcher performed a multivariate analysis whereby the independent variables included the education level, age, sex, income, and political ideology. This is to determine the nature and magnitude of the Trump Effect on the American justice and law enforcement system’s fabric. The Trump relation was found to have a negative, and it created a political climate that conflicted between the minorities and the police.

The participants thought of Donald Trump played a role in the distrust within the community, thus compromising the law enforcement process in the United states. Given its magnitude, the Trump effects were a necessary phenomenon to study to understand how the political climate affects law and order and how the law enforcement system can insulate itself from being influenced by politics.

Solomon, J., & Martin, A. (2019). Competitive victimhood as a lens to reconciliation: An analysis of the black lives matter and blue lives matter movements. Conflict Resolution Quarterly37(1), 7-31.

Solomon & Martin (2019) sought to understand the competitive victimhood between the law enforcement authorities in the United States and the minorities to enhance reconciliation amid the Black Live Matter movement. The researchers look into the concepts of intergroup conflict and competitive victimhood and how objectivity and morality in the conflict’s politics can be restored.

Police-Community Trust Building Annotated Bibliography

Victimhood and the vilification of an opposing group are known to grant a group political influence during the conflict. They also established that the minority police conflict is not unique in the United States, and minorities worldwide tend to disproportionately get into conflict with the police, which can be attributed to the poor low enforcement’s consideration and understanding of the community. The Black Lives Matter movement spotlights the conflict between the police and the African American community.

Consequently, an opposing movement arose that allowed the police force to claim victimhood against the African American community. The researcher conducted a qualitative and quantitative analysis on competitive victimhood as a zero-sum game. The researcher reviewed data from primary sources on the Blue Live Matter and Black Lives Matter movements.

It was found that the psychological dynamic between the Black and Blue Lives Matter movements presents the need for a more nuanced conversation between the parties. The researchers succeeded in offering both perspective and their respective justifications, thus challenging future studies in the police-community conflicts to be more nuanced.

Carr, J. D., & Maxwell, S. R. (2018). Police officers’ perceptions of organizational justice and their trust in the public. Police Practice and Research19(4), 365-379.

Carr & Maxwell (2018) sought to understand organizational justice and how the police force’s organizational culture affects the officer’s attitude, behavior, and perspectives. The researchers based the study on the fact that the relationship between the employer and employee is likely to affect that organization’s relationship with the client, the professional relationship amongst police officers is expected Previous studies had utilized the model on organizational justice and its effect on law enforcement; thus the researchers in this study explored the effects of organizational trust on the police’s faith into the public.

A sample of 190 police officers was used in the study, who filled a survey that took at least 10 minutes to fill on informational, procedural, interpersonal, and distributive justice within the police force in four midsized cities. They used a sample of officers within the patrol division and found a strong correlation between the community’s organizational justice perspectives and police officers’ trust. This study effectively showed that enhancing the well-being of the police force increases their ability and willingness to be in good relations with the public, which would be more effective than antipolice campaigns like Defund the Police.

Voigt, R., Camp, N. P., Prabhakaran, V., Hamilton, W. L., Hetey, R. C., Griffiths, C. M., … & Eberhardt, J. L. (2017). Language from police body camera footage shows racial disparities in officer respect. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences114(25), 6521-6526.

To understand the racial disparity in police-community relations, Voigt et al. (2017) used camera footage from police officers’ body cameras to observe the difference in their language while addressing African American and White people. The transcripts of their conversation with people from the different communities were analyzed using linguistic computation models developed by the researchers. After the thin slicing of the police’s utterances, a consistency was found between the disrespectful manner that the police officers addressed African Americans.

This was in consideration of the severity of infliction location of the stop and the outcome. The researchers concluded that procedural justice, part of how the police officers address public members, affects trust-building between the police and the community. This study provides insight into the fundamentals of the conflict between the police and minority communities in the United States, such as how they address them.

Police-Community Trust Building

Mummolo, J. (2018). Militarization fails to enhance police safety or reduce crime but may harm police reputation. Proceedings of the national academy of sciences115(37), 9181-9186.

Mummolo (2018) addressed the fact that the police force’s militarization in the United States has raised concerns about law enforcement’s reputation. After police militarization, this was defined as the combination of military gear, tactics, and culture in local-level law enforcement, even when it is unnecessary. The researchers notice that militarized police were used to control protests and prevent violent crime within regions with minority communities. Despite the use of military gear in local law enforcement, police safety was not enhanced, which was observed from surveys and panel data on a national scale.

It was found that the police’s militarization was ineffective in protecting the police and counterproductive in police-community relationships. This study was influential in the show some of the means that tend to compromise police-community trust and whether the tradeoff between the community trust and the use of force exists. Therefore, a campaign against aggressive policing would be effective than defunding the police, which is justified by the availability of resources that fund a militant police force.

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